Impact of emotional intelligence on employee’s performance
This term paper is through light on impact of emotional intelligence
on performance of employees and the next objective is to know how to
become an EI organization. Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the
ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers
suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened,
while other claim it is an inborn characteristic. To do the research
thoroughly, review of literature is being taken with twenty articles.
Through this study, it is concluded that emotional intelligence has
greater impact on performance of employees. Secondly an emotionally
intelligent organization is based on an organisational strategy to improve
• Objective of study is to through light on the impact of emotional
intelligence on performance of employees.
• Second objective is to analyse that how to become an EI organization.
Scope of study
Each and every project study along with its certain objectives also
has scope for future. And this scope in future gives to new researches
a new need to research a new project with a new scope. Scope of the
study could give the projected scenario for a new successful strategy
with a proper implementation plan. Whatever scope we observed in our
project is this study will be helpful to know the relation between the
emotional intelligence and performance on the employees.
The scope for the organization whose employees, if they are lacking
in their performance due to low level of emotional intelligence, they
can help them to increase their emotional intelligence. Scope of study
will can be helpful in future why some employees are outstanding performers
while others are not. On the basis of these results an organization
can choose a strategy and actions to improve the performance of their
It can give a new dimension in the future to conduct such research on
the employees of other sector also The study of data is purely based
on secondary data. To get proper understanding about this concept.
In this day and age the Economy is always growing, business volumes
rising. We live in a
World where competition is always present and confrontations and battles
at a business level are all around us. Therefore management theories
develop models on “the rivalry of a company based on its human resources”,
with the argument that a company can achieve competitive advantages
through creation and protection that increases distinctive value. In
this environment managers begin to conclude that the motto is “not
knowing how to do it, but yes increasing its value”.
1. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive
emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought,
to understand emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist
thought to understand emotions and emotional knowledge and to reflectively
regulate emotions and emotional knowledge and to reflectively regulate
emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.
• Understanding yourself, your goals, intentions, responses, behaviour
• Understanding others, and their feelings.
2. Emotional Intelligence helps the employees to
increase their emotional self-awareness, emotional expression, creativity,
increase tolerance, increase trust and integrity, improve relations
within and across the organization and thereby increase the performance
of each employee and the organization as a whole. “Emotional intelligence
is one of the few key characteristics that gives rise to strategic
leaders in organizations”
3. At a microcosmic level, EI will produce an employee
who will know his capability, his job, has an outlook in the future,
and is confident of a well-thought action. This will be more valuable
than the action of an employee with high IQ and good knowledge, but
low EI. This is where; emotional intelligence plays a significant
role in the organization and becomes an important criterion of evaluation
for judgment of an ‘effective’ employee. At a macrocosmic level, EI
increases productivity and trust within and across the organization.
In an era of shifting paradigms, one of the world’s fastest growing
emerging economies, such as India, should be able to develop its human
resources as a source of competitive advantage. In order to develop
and enhance workforce capabilities and to successfully compete in the
21st Century, organisations have to embark on future oriented human
resources strategies. It could be argued that the individual competencies
of the workforce in any organisation would determine its overall success.
This success, among other things, may be attributed to the socio-behavioural
characteristics and adjustments these individuals have to make in their
job-role and position-power to gain common ground in any organisational
setting. Therefore the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) is playing
a vital role in every organization which describes the ability, capacity,
skill or, in the case of the trait EI model, a self-perceived ability,
to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others,
and of groups. Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to
perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that
emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while other
claim it is an inborn characteristic. Since 1990, Peter Salovey and
John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on emotional intelligence.
In their influential article “Emotional Intelligence,” they defined
emotional intelligence as, “the subset of social intelligence that
involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions,
to discriminate aong them and to use this information to guide one's
thinking and actions” (1990).
Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors
of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason
using emotions, the ability to understand emotion, and the ability to
According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are,
"arranged from more basic psychological processes to higher,
more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level
branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of perceiving and
expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the
conscious, reflective regulation of emotion" (1997).
Research of EI and job performance show mixed results: a positive relation
has been found in some of the studies, in others there was no relation
or an inconsistent one. This led researchers Cote and Miners (2006)
to offer a compensatory model between EQ and IQ that posits that the
association between EQ and job performance becomes more positive as
cognitive intelligence decreases, an idea first proposed in the context
of academic performance.
Brief History and Definitions
1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of “social intelligence”
as the ability to get along with other people. 1940s – David Wechsler
suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential
to success in life. 1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham
Maslow describe how people can build emotional strength. 1975 - Howard
Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of
multiple intelligences. 1985 - Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional
intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled “A study of emotion:
developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear,
pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion,
and tuning in/coming out/letting go).”The study of emotional intelligence
evolved from works by such theorists as Gardner (1983) and Williams
and Sternberg (1988), who proposed broader approaches to understanding
intelligence. Salovey and Mayer (1990) coined the term “emotional intelligence”
and included Gardner’s Intrapersonal and interpersonal components in
the construct. Goleman (1998) popularized emotional intelligence in
the business realm by describing its importance as an ingredient for
successful business careers and as a crucial component for effective
1. “The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions,
to discriminate among Them, and to use the information to guide one’s
thinking and action” (Mayer & Salovey,1993).
2. “The intelligent use of emotions: you intentionally make your
emotions work for you by using them to help guide your behaviour and
thinking in ways that enhance your results”
3. “The ability to recognize and respond to the emotions and feelings
of others, as well as the
Skill to help others manage their emotions” (Schmidt, 1997).
Although many definitions exist, the basic ideas are the same. Emotionally
intelligent people are aware of their emotions and the emotions of others.
They use that information to guide their thinking and actions.
The Biological Dynamics of Emotional Intelligence
Using emotions intelligently is no easy task because there are deep
biological processes involved in emotion. Brain theory suggests that
through genetically determined processes, the emotional brain (amygdala
along with other limbic structures) tends to dominate over the rational
brain (neocortex) and controls the thought processes of individuals
(Bear, Conners, & Paradiso, 1996). When situations or critical moments
calling for intelligent actions emerge, the amygdale suppresses the
rational processes of the neocortex, and interprets or even exaggerates
the events as hostile and dangerous to the person. In people who become
easily angered, irritated, excited, or upset, this phenomenon can be
easily noticed. In such cases, Obeying commands from the amygdala, the
person perceives the situation as threatening and starts engaging in
defensive, emotionalized behaviour that can take irrational dimensions
(Davidson, Jackson, & Kalin, 2000). The person could be depicted
as operating in the emotionally less intelligent mode. At this point,
an individual becomes emotionally excited, and the body shows symptoms
of palpitations, increased blood pressure, and other biological reactions.
All these physical reactions occur within the flicker of a moment and
could be summarized as an emotional “game” played by the amygdala. Most
people experience many such occurrences of emotional games in their
lives. In emotionally intelligent people, the mind is able to detect
this emotional game played by the amygdala, and thus the capacities
of the mind are tuned for controlled emotional involvement. This ability
of the EI person to pull back and recognize what is happening inside
the mind is called meta-regulation of mood (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso,
1997). In the mature form of EI, the person is able to channel his emotions
constructively and use those emotions as motivational support for the
actions of the rational mind.
A description of the high EI individual and relation to Performance
Generally speaking, emotional intelligence improves an individual's
social effectiveness. The higher the emotional intelligence, the better
the social relations.
The high EI individual, most centrally, can better perceive emotions,
use them in thought, understand their meanings, and manage emotions,
than others. Solving emotional problems likely requires less cognitive
effort for this individual. The person also tends to be somewhat higher
in verbal, social, and other intelligences, particularly if the individual
scored higher in the understanding emotions portion of EI. The individual
tends to be more open and agreeable than others. The high EI person
is drawn to occupations involving social interactions such as teaching
and counselling more so than to occupations involving clerical or administrative
The high EI individual, relative to others, is less apt to engage in
problem behaviours, and avoids self-destructive, negative behaviours
such as smoking, excessive drinking, drug abuse, or violent episodes
with others. The high EI person is more likely to have possessions of
sentimental attachment around the home and to have more positive social
interactions, particularly if the individual scored highly on emotional
management. Such individuals may also be more adept at describing motivational
goals, aims, and missions.
Note that the specific kind of boost that emotional intelligence gives
the individual will be subtle, and as a consequence, require some effort
to identify. It will not be exhibited in all social circumstances.
Nonetheless, EI is important for Performance
Some of us accomplish certain tasks with great ease and sophistication;
others of us simply can't do those tasks. This is the case with most
challenges we face in life. Some of us are great chess players while
others of us have trouble just figuring out how the pieces move. Some
of us are fabulous conversationalists, while others of us have trouble
just saying hello.
Now, the world could do without the game of chess, and the world could
do without fabulous conversationalists, but it would be a poorer place
Emotional intelligence is an intelligence having to do with discerning
and understanding emotional information. Emotional information is all
around us. Emotions communicate basic feeling states from one individual
to another -- they signal urgent messages such as "let's get together"
or "I am hurting" or "I'm going to hurt you." What
ability tests of emotional intelligence tell us is that only some people
can pick up and understand and appreciate the more subtle versions of
those messages. That is, only the high EI individual understands the
full richness and complexities of these communications.
Emotional information is crucial. It is one of the primary forms of
information that human beings process. That doesn't mean that everybody
has to process it well. But it does mean that it is circulating around
us, and certain people who can pick up on it can perform certain tasks
very well that others cannot perform.
Everyone needs emotional intelligence to help us through our emotionally
demanding days. Even if we are not emotionally intelligent ourselves,
we may rely on those higher in emotional intelligence to guide us. But
guide us to what? What is it that people high in emotional intelligence
can see that so many others are blind to? The key to this lies in what
those high in emotional intelligence are particularly good at doing
They're particularly good at establishing positive social relationships
with others, and avoiding conflicts, fights, and other social altercations.
They're particularly good at understanding psychologically healthy living
and avoiding such problems as drugs and drug abuse. It seems likely
that such individuals, by providing coaching advice to others, and by
directly involving themselves in certain situations, assist other individuals
and groups of people to live together with greater harmony and satisfaction.
So, perhaps even more important than scoring high on an emotional intelligence
test, is knowing one's level at this group of skills. Discovering one's
level means that you can know whether and how much to be self-reliant
in emotional areas and when to seek others' help in reading the emotional
information that is going on around oneself. Whether one is high or
low in emotional intelligence, is perhaps not as important as knowing
that emotional information exists and that some people can understand
it. Knowing just that, one can use emotional information, by finding
those who are able to understand it and reason with it.
This is the information age. All of us are dependent on information
and using it wisely. The advent of the ability model of emotional intelligence
enriches our knowledge of the information surrounding us -- it tells
us emotional information is there and that some people can see it and
uses it. The model encourages all of us to use emotional information
wisely -- whether through our own direct understanding, or through the
assistance of those who do understand.
Emotionally Intelligent Organisation (Having High Performers)
The Emotionally Intelligent Organisation i.e. an organisation with a
high number of emotionally intelligent leaders, managers and critical
professionals stands to be at the forefront of organisational practice
and performance, and is more likely to be an employer of choice.
Research also supports the view that competence in Emotional Intelligence
accounts for over 90% of the difference between ineffective performers
and effective performance. Effective performers improve business performance
and provide organisations with a competitive advantage.
Becoming an EI organisation
The decision to become an emotionally intelligent organisation needs
to be based on an organisational strategy to improve business performance.
To implement this strategy you first need to define what the core capabilities
your business requires to achieve its vision, values and business strategies
which include Emotional Intelligence clusters and competencies. You
will also need to identify the more specific competency profiles for
positions within the organisation.
This capability framework and competency profiles, and then forms the
basis for your performance management system in conjunction with your
Key Performance Indicators. The performance management system then becomes
a mechanism for driving and achieving changes in the workplace.
The framework can also be used to support recruitment and selection
and other cultural development strategies, thus ensuring a more appropriate
match of people and organization goals. Some organizations also have
an EI Capability Assessment tool that identifies individual training
needs as well as providing a picture of the organisations capability.
The next stage is to grow the emotional intelligence competencies through
specific development programs reflecting the organisation’s capability
The Emotional Intelligence Development Programs provided by organization
provide a structured pathway to improve the individual’s self-awareness,
their self-management and the way they interact with people and develop
relationships. In other words it will grow their Emotional Intelligence.
If you do not have a “core” capability framework for your staff, there
are still benefits in introducing Emotional Intelligence development
programs. These are seen primarily through improved leadership and interpersonal
relationships and as a result improved business performance.
Research methodology comprises of two words research and methodology.
Research is a process of defining and redefining problems formulating
the different hypothesis with suggested solutions by collecting, summarizing,
organizing and evaluating different data’s by thus reaching on solutions
with careful testing. Research is common means which refer to search
for knowledge and methodology is defined as a particular procedure or
set of procedures used in finding the answers of problem or problems.
This research is based on second hand data.
Secondary data: secondary literature is also being used which studies
are made by others for their own purposes. For this we have used articles
from www.proquest.com, www.ssrn.com and also from times of India, books,
Review of literature
Rahim, Hussain, Saddam (2010) has investigated the
effect of demographic factors like Age, Education, Job tenure, Gender
and Marital Status on the level of Emotional Intelligence which leads
to organizational performance among male and female employees. Research
has shown that the female segment is more emotionally intelligent than
their male employees in bank sector and there is inverse relationship
between the age of the male and female employees and EI. With increase
in education level, EI has also improvement in its level. Satisfaction
level of employees is also a good determinant of their performance.
Deepa, R. (2009):- Emotional intelligence (EI), which
is an ability to manage one’s own and others’ emotions appropriately,
has caught the attention of researchers in recent times. It has a significant
impact on the personal and professional success of individuals. It has
been empirically proven that EI impacts the performance and well-being
characteristics of individuals and teams, and facilitates organizational
effectiveness and competitive advantage. This paper consolidates the
research activities on EI in four areas namely Conceptualization, measurement,
Impact, and development, and concludes with directions for future research
for adapting this concept to Indian Context.
Peter Taylor (2009) Emotional intelligence is the
ability to perceive one's emotions and to effectively manage one's behaviours
in emotionally charged situations. It is also the ability to factor
in the emotions of others as one interacts with them. In this article
the author has provided tips and techniques for applying emotional intelligence
to various scenarios. All of these techniques have application in negotiations
and supplier development. They are also essential in leadership and
coaching. People respond much better to those who treat them with honesty,
respect and civility.
Karen Albertsen, et.al(2009)The aim was to examine
whether exposures in the psychosocial work environment predicted symptoms
of cognitive stress in a sample of Danish knowledge workersand whether
performance-based self-esteem had a main effect, over and above the
work environmental factors. Knowledge workers, selected from a national,
representative cohort study, were followed up with two data collections,
12 months apart. Author used data on psychosocial work environment factors
and cognitive stress symptoms measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial
Questionnaire and a measurement of performance-based self-esteem. Results:
Measures at baseline of quantitative demands, role conflicts, lack of
role clarity, recognition, predictability, influence and social support
from management were positively associated with cognitive stress symptoms
12 months later. Performance-based self-esteem was prospectively associated
with cognitive stress symptoms and had an independent effect above the
psychosocial work environment factors on the level of and changes in
cognitive stress symptoms.
Krishnaveni, R., & Deepa, R. (2008):- Today’s
workplace is dynamic in nature and is characterized by time deadlines,
cross-cultural teams, work pressures, and work-family conflicts, which
in turn result in a highly stressed work force. These factors have a
negative impact on the well-being of employees and the effectiveness
of an organization. The individual competencies of the workforce are
strong determinants of an organization’s success. It is in this context
that this paper explains how Emotional Intelligence (EI) can be used
as a soft tool, to enhance the competencies of individuals and teams
in Indian organizations and help them to gain competitive advantage
Lorenzo, Fariselli, et.al (2008)
As in many fields, healthcare is a complex and stressful environment
where interpersonal interactions are of paramount importance. This study
finds that in a sample of 68 professional midwives and obstetricians
in a large urban hospital, emotional intelligence is strongly predictive
of performance (66%), stress is slightly predictive (6% to 24%), and
emotional intelligence is predictive of stress management (6.5%). The
study elaborates on the first finding to identify the differences of
effect in seniority (for the most senior employees the effects are strongest)
to which specific emotional intelligence competencies are most significant
in this context.
Dong, Qingwen (2007):- This study based on a sample
of 292 college students shows that interpersonal communication satisfaction
can be predicted by individuals’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence
is operationalzed based on Goleman’s (1998) conceptualization including
self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills.
The study suggests that those individuals, who are aware of themselves
and others, and who are able to manage themselves and others, tend to
satisfy their communication experience with others. However, the study
indicates that self-esteem does not have significant impact on college
students’ interpersonal communication satisfaction. This finding raises
possibilities for further investigation in the area. Limitations and
suggestions for future studies are provided
Rajendran, Diana et.al (2007) The concept of Emotional
Intelligence (EI) has recently attracted a great amount of interest
from HR practitioners and academics alike. Whilst the majority of research
in this area has been conducted in Western countries, recent studies
have begun to assess the generalisability and validity of the EI concept
in cross-cultural settings. The purpose of this paper was to assess
the reliability of the Workplace version of the Swinburne University
Emotional Intelligence Test in an Indian population. The Workplace SUEIT
demonstrated adequate reliability in the sample of 110 participants
in India, although the mean scores for the sub-scales were significantly
lower than in the Australian normative population. The results are discussed
in the context that EI tests need to undergo cross-cultural examination
to assess their validity and cultural relevance. Researchers using Indian
workplace samples are needed to evaluate the predictive validity of
tests of EI in the Indian context.
Singh, Kavita (2007) the concept of emotional intelligence
has become so popular in the management literature that it has become
imperative to understand and leverage it for the sake of enhancing the
capacity of human capital in organizations. As the pace of change is
increasing and world of work is making ever greater demands on a person’s
cognitive, emotional and physical resources, this particular set of
abilities are becoming increasingly important. Since majority of the
concerns in organization involve people in different roles, emotional
intelligence must become a determining factor for their effective management.
It has also been found that ultimately it is the emotional and personal
competencies that we need to identify and measure if we want to be able
to predict performance at workplace resulting in its effectiveness,
thereby enhancing the worth of the human capital. In this scenario the
competencies possessed by the people will have a bearing on the extent
to which they can actualize their emotional intelligence. The result
suggests that emotional intelligence is significantly related with the
personal competencies of employees and the variables of personal competency
namely, people success, system success and self success have a predictive
relationship with emotional intelligence.
William L Weis, David W Arnesen (2007) Interest in
emotional intelligence (EQ) has grown exponentially over the past decade.
Growing along with that popularity is a demand for management training
programs and graduate business courses that help clients and students
enhance their EQ awareness and behaviours. So far the response to that
demand has been tepid - limited, for the most part, to educating participants
on the theory of EQ, offering assessment instruments, and suggesting
action plans. This discussion reviews the current state of EQ training
and offers an outline for changing EQ attributes based on a course developed
for graduate business students at Seattle University.
Wakeman, Chris (2006) “Motivation helps the individuals
to define new and improved methods of completing a certain task or performing
a job. It also creates loyalty among the individuals, towards their
cause. In addition to this, the element of empathy further contributes
towards the development of emotional intelligence in an individual.
It allows the individual to consider the feelings of the individuals
who are expected to be affected by his or her decisions. Emotional Intelligence
helps the individuals to realize the fact that their decisions are going
to affect others in a positive or a negative manner and therefore they
should consider the consequences of their decisions. Finally, social
skills allow the individuals to come close to their peers and subordinates
and understand their emotional needs."
Timothy Tumer (2006) This study examined the relationships
among employees’ emotional intelligence, their manager’s emotional intelligence,
employees’ job satisfaction, and performance for 187 food service employees
from nine different locations of the same restaurant franchise. They
predicted and found that employees’ emotional intelligence was positively
associated with job satisfaction and performance. In addition, manager’s
emotional intelligence had a more positive correlation with job satisfaction
for employees with low emotional intelligence than for those with high
emotional intelligence. These findings remain significant after controlling
for personality factors. A similar pattern was found for job performance;
however, the effect did not meet traditional standards of significance.
Brown, F. William et.al (2006) this article presents
a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized
to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in
oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in emotion
in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve
in one's life. They start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive
versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. They then explore the literature
on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the
place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework
for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described.
Next, they review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude
the review, the role of the emotional intelligence in mental health
is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
Kevin McGuiness, Bauld, Stephen (2006) this article
identified some of the critical elements of an Emotional Intelligence
(EI) training program, explain their importance, and discuss their relationship
to other training efforts. When selecting a suitable EI program, look
beyond academic merit for a program with a clear connection to the commercial
context in which purchasing professionals must operate. EI training
lays the foundation for further specialized training in motivational
techniques, including coaching and leadership programs. The prospective
trainer should be able to explain how the program information will relate
to overall organizational strategy, and how participants will achieve
at a high potential, and demonstrate drive, commitment and initiative
in the performance of their day-to-day responsibilities.
Joni Rose (2006) Employers no longer just look for
a set of industry related skills. They look for leadership potential
and that includes a high level of emotional intelligence (EI). The competencies
that make up EI include self-awareness, social awareness, self management
and relationship management. Being aware of your emotional triggers
and why they trigger you is key to practicing emotional intelligence
principles. Emotional triggers are events or personality types that
cause an intense emotional response. It is crucial to your professional
development that you deal with these triggers head-on. They can cause
major career derailment, severe stress and emotional burn out if not
Joshua Freedman,et.al (2005) Critical success factors
for work and life are predicted by scores on the Six Seconds Emotional
Intelligence Assessment (SEI). In a sample of 665, SEI scores are strongly
predictive of effectiveness, relationship quality, health, and quality
of life. This suggests that emotional intelligence (as measured by the
SEI) is an essential element for professional and personal success.
Navigate Emotions: learn from and transform feelings Increase Optimism:
identify multiple options for changing the future Engage Intrinsic Motivation:
build internal energy and drive:-Increase Empathy: respond appropriately
to others’ feelings
Pursue Noble Goals: align daily choices with principles and purpose
James Thomas Kunnanatt (2004) in business, it is growing
into a multimillion dollar training industry. Multinational corporations
and the world’s giant industrial groups are realizing that emotions
play an equally important role as intelligence in enhancing employee
performance. Daniel Goleman, who popularized the concept, argues that
the contribution of emotional intelligence to effective performance
at work is as much as 66 percent for all jobs and 85 percent for leadership
jobs (Goleman, 1995). Management practitioners all over the world, however,
are only beginning to understand what EI is, how EI develops in a person,
and what tools, techniques, and methods are available to develop emotional
Lennart Sjöberg Elisabeth Engel berg (2004) EI was
measured by performance and self-report tasks. Data were also obtained
on basic values, some standard personality dimensions such as those
specified in the five-factor model, social adjustment and several scales
of impression management. Criteria were loneliness, work-family life
balance and Internet addiction, and also measures of emotional and value
deviance. Participants were college students in a business education
program who participated anonymously in the extensive test session,
which took about six hours to complete. It was found that EI measures
- both self-report and performance - intercorrelated as expected, and
that EI was strongly related as expected to criteria. People high in
EI reported less loneliness, less Internet addiction and better work/studies
- leisure/family balance. Impression management was more strongly related
to self-report data than to performance. Self-report data were to a
large extent accounted for by measures of personality according to the
five-factor model, but performance measures were not. Finally, the extent
of faking was measured and controlled for.
Douglas, Caesar et.al (2004)
This study investigates whether the relationship between conscientiousness
and performance is stronger for individuals who are high on emotional
intelligence. The results of hierarchical moderated regression analyses
supported the hypothesis by demonstrating that the relationship between
conscientiousness and work performance is positive for individuals high
(versus low) in emotional intelligence. However, the opposite pattern
was found for those low in emotional intelligence; that is, increases
in conscientiousness were associated with decreases in performance.
Findings of study
• There is a positive relation between the EI and performance of employees.
• Emotionally intelligent organization can be made through organizational
strategies, self awareness and self management tools, through leadership
skills, development programmes.
• Age has an impact on EI, because most of the employee’s falls in the
age group of 20 -30, were having high scores of emotional intelligence.
• Individuals who are having high EI have the following characteristics:
- Understand diverse worldviews and are sensitive to group differences
- Are attentive to emotional cues and listen well
- Detect crucial social networks
- Deal with difficult issues straightforwardly
- Listen well, seek mutual understanding, and welcome sharing of information
- Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well as
Hence we can say that emotionally intelligent employees have an impact
on their performance and these employees perform well in the organization.
These people are more emotionally stable and they are able to express
their emotions, these are motivated, they can empathize with other and
they are having good social skills. To perform well your responsibilities
in the workplace you need to have good social skills, only then you
can perform your work well and can take work out of the others.
In the earlier era as we have seen in this project report there was
a much emphasis on IQ only and EI was not given much importance but
now the scenario has been changed and organization from IQ to EI so
here are some of the recommendations for organizations and individuals
about EI.As now-a-days, a person is exposed to many cultures and influenced
by many things. Organizations earlier used to give tangible benefits
to the internal / external customers, these days customers are looking
for fulfilment of their emotional needs. Organizations in a long run
to maintain customer loyalty they need to take care of employees emotional
needs and behave empathetically. Therefore organization should pay attention
towards Emotional Intelligence needs of employees.
• Organizations should choose those employees who are having a high
level of emotional intelligence. Because these people are more emotionally
balanced and they have a better understanding of every situation and
they can perform very well in these situations weather it is stress,
happiness, anger, love etc.
• Employers should time to time check the level of EI to provide them
feedback and get better performance out of them. Because when there
is a effective communication between the two sides better will be the
results for both the parties hence increased productivity and performance.
• Organizations should give training to employees to improve their EI,
because EI can be learned at any age and at any time in life, it is
not an inborn characteristic.
• EI techniques should be used to enhance the reasoning of employees.
• Those companies who will be using EI, they’ll remain successful in
the future, because the workforce will be emotionally more stable and
can handle under every situation.
• Individuals who are having lower level of EI they should work to improve
this and it can result in understanding better your emotions and managing
them and it will be helpful in workplace and as a result the performance
of an individual will be increased.
The present study has produced some important results that have implications
for both research and practice. The study on employee’s emotional intelligence
and their ability to perform effectively on the job is identified as
they are able to manage their emotional intelligence, which has a direct
impact on their job. These skills are to be developed for achieving
higher employee productivity and to enhance the image of the organization.
A particularly interesting finding or result of the present study was
that emotional intelligence of employees had an impact on their level
of performance on the job. This has implications for management, suggesting
that organizations could be profitable by identifying the level of emotional
intelligence of employees and apply interventions that are focused on
the developing emotional intelligence among the employees in the organization.
EI is associated with better performance in the following areas.
• Participative Management.
• Pulling people at Ease.
• Balance between personal life and work.
• Straight Forwardness & Composure.
• Doing whatever it takes
• Confronting Problem Employees
Most of the organizations are nowadays taking those employees who are
emotionally intelligent, so that they can face the workplace problems
easily and they can become more productive for the organization. Emotionally
intelligent organization can be made through organizational strategies,
self awareness and self management tools, through leadership skills,
development programmes. So what has been concluded from the whole project
report is that emotional intelligence is linked at every point of workplace
performance and it is of utmost importance nowadays. In the earlier
time EI was not given much emphasis and instead of that IQ is given
more importance. People with IQ level are preferred within the organizations
but now the scenario has been changed and organizations prefer those
employees who are emotionally stable. Hence, to be successful in life
EQ plays a vital role.
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