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This report is an evaluation of leadership style as it affects motivation and productivity in work organizations. The terms pertinent to this work are first defined. Historical and current theories are the presented and discussed. Theory understanding and implementation are essential to increase motivation in the organization. Data from leadership style studies is presented showing that situational determinants, traits, and wide style range are essential to promote motivation and effective leadership. There is no single "narrow" leadership style for all occasions rather the whole leader is needed for optimum productivity.


Inherent in the definitions of lead, leader, leadership, and leadership style is the notion of motivation. People generally think of movement, fulfilling needs, doing, inertia, change, causality, influence, action, and impact when they ponder about motivation. Of times, questions are asked about motivation like;
How did A Cause B?
What factor or factors really caused B?
Why was B motivated?
Who had the most impact on B?

Motivation can be considered in two major modes, intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is that which comes from within the individual, team, group, or organization. Its execution brings about production and self-actualization. Extrinsic motivation is that which originates outside of the individual or organization under scrutiny. The fulfillment of external motivation results in what Lawler (1973) calls social rewards. Dyer, (1972) defines three areas affected by motivation. A
Change in amount, quality, or direction of performance. Dictionary definitions give more insight into the relationship between leadership and motivation. To lead means to show the way, to conduct, to escort, to guide, and to direct. To cause to follow.
to induce, to steer, to tend toward a certain goal or result, to point the way by going first or by setting an example (all implying some type of motivation). Of course, a leader is one who executes in some manner one or more of these processes.

Leadership may be defined as “to go before” or “show a right path” There is a leader in each and every organization who leads an organization, further to achieve their objectives. It has been viewed that without a leader at every level of organization. Our organization can miss opportunities, stifle innovation, underutilize the employees, fall short of its objective in customers service,quality,productivity,profitability. Leadership at all levels makes difference as to whether our company will be around for long haul, so invest today in leadership to attain success tomorrow’s developing leadership at all levels in an organization helps to sustain long term success. Leadership is a complex process through which a person influences others to accomplish their goal & directs the organization in a way that makes it cohersive.A leader carries out processes by applying Leadership attributes ie.beliefs,values,ethics,characteristics, knowledge skills
Developing leadership covers the broader concept of whom? What? Where? Is intended to assist in the promotion of leadership development
According to Collins leadership is a very vast concept that includes:
1. Position of leader
2. Period during which person occupies a position of leader within an organization
3. Ability to lead leadership qualities
4. Leader as a group of union

According to Warren Benes”leadership is focused much more on individual capability of a leader. It is a function of knowing yourself having a vision that is communicated, building a trust among colleagues & taking effective action to realize leadership potential.
“Leadership is an interactive conversation that pulls people towards becoming comfortable with language of personal responsibility and commitment”
Leadership is not meant for the people of top management, but everyone can discover power within himself and can lead “leaders are not born they are made”. Leadership is more about dealing with people verses tasks. Great Leaders are able to positively influence people to perform the tasks to them.”Leadership is effectively influencing others”
Leadership is one of those areas about which huge amount is said while leaving a big question unanswered

Who is a leader?
• Someone who is not a natural leader leadership programmers to run where natural leaders can develop skills to become great ones
• Training Programmers’ push them to gain insight, to comfortably stretch their boundaries.
• Once you are able to see what is going on, then you can move on to developing essential skills.

Essential skills of leadership:
• Good communication
• Being articulate
• Think on your feet
• Humor
• Flexibility
• Integrity
• Compelling presence
• Empathy
• Innovative &promoting change
• Having ability to develop as a leader
• Focus on people
• Inspiring trust among members
• Long range perspective
• Changing status

Leadership Role:
1. Need is to demonstrate the kind of leadership
2. Managers can take step &can go beyond expectations to become inspirational leaders
3. Good leaders smoothly brings big changes within an organization
4. If members are ready for promotion then they have to understand next level
5. Leadership development is all about what you need to help company’s progress to next level


According to one well respected behaviorist, Warren Bennis, leadership theory seems to be very unclear. “Of all the hazy and confounding areas in social psychology, leadership theory undoubtedly contends for top nomination. And ironically, probably more has been written and less is known about leadership than about any other topic in the behavioral sciences” (Bennis cit. in Weed, 1972).
The probable reason for such a statement is the multiplicity of terminology which has been applied to an equally voluminous number of models and viewpoints about leadership and leadership style. Perhaps the best categorical description of many of these theories is found in Stogdill (1974). He separates the many theories and theorists into basically six camps. Great man and trait theories are some of the earliest dating back to the nineteenth century. During the first half of the twentieth century environmental theories emerged. Overlapping the environmental theories were the personal-situational theories propounded during the time between the thirties and the sixties. The final three categories have come to the forefront in the past twenty years. They include the interaction-expectation theories, the humanistic theories, and the exchange theories. Petit (1975) discusses three factors which are involved in these different theories of leadership style. They are the traits of the leader and his followers, the behaviors of the leaders and his followers, as well as the situation in which leadership is exercised.

Early Leadership Theories:

The great man and trait theories of leadership originated through looking at the traits and heritage of leaders demonstrating impact in the past. According to these theories there are certain traits or certain biologically inherited characteristics that leaders have which motivate the masses to follow.
This theory type is narrow in that it disregards other essential factors which are considered later in the development of leadership theory. That is not to say, however, that traits and other personal characteristics are not important in motivational leadership.
The environmental or situational theories focused on the societal-group factors which produce and promote leadership. The motivational leadership style of the leader or leaders was thought to be dependent only upon the situation according to this view. Those who proposed this theory made the same mistake which the 'great man-trait' theorists made; that of being too narrow in their observations and conclusions. It is apparent however that the group, place. Time and circumstances do play an important part in motivating workers to action.
The next group of theories to emerge combined the trait and situational factors in what Stogdill calls the personal situational theories. This group of theories began as a two factor theory considering the traits and external conditions of the leader. Next it expanded to a three factor theory which included the task of the group. Some of the major personal-situational leadership theorists include Warren Bennis, J.R. Gibb, and others.

Modern Leadership Theories:

The interaction-expectation theories look to the expectations or valence of those involved in the work relationship. They recommend that these expectations are promoted through the continuity or lack of it as seen by the subordinates and supervisors. The focus of the development of motivation is in the sentiments of the involved parties during and following the processes of interaction. Proponents of
Interaction-expectation theories are Fred Fiedler, R.J. House, G.C. Homans, Ralph Stogdill and others. The exchange theories point out a joint contribution to organizational motivation by the subordinates and supervisors. The organizational members provide social rewards for each other and receive back the same. When this social exchange occurs on an equitable basis motivation and productivity are optimized.
The humanistic theories began with a basic assumption that people have a natural inner motivation. This motivation (when freedom and creativity are promoted in the organization) is translated into productivity. There are many models of these theories which have many similarities.
These include Chris Argyris' (1964) organization vs. individual model, the Blake-Mouton (1964) managerial grid, Douglas McGregor's (1966) theory X and theory Y model, the Task-Person leadership style model proposed by Sergiovanni, Metzcus, and Burden (1969), the Hersey-Blanchard (1972)
L.A.S.I. task-relationship model, as well as others. These humanistic theories have had the biggest thrust during the past decade and are still much in vogue among management specialists and organizational development agents. When these humanistic theories first emerged an assumption was made by some that there might be a best leadership style for any and all situations. As this assumption
And these theories were tested and evolved; researchers found no best style for all situations but found that style adaptability is a major key to high motivation and productivity. Style adaptability according to Hersey-Blanchard (1972) is the degree to which a leader is able to adapt his behaviors to the demands of various situations in order to accrue appropriate results in those situations. The humanistic theories show four basic generalized leadership styles. Different workers name them differently.

Developing leadership skills:

Every level of organization requires characteristics as a key for effective Leadership. The essential attributes of Leadership development are the Followers. Learning and understanding different functions an organization should work together understanding the complexities & changes happening in external environment.analysing strengths,weakenesses,opportunities & threats to understand the strategic objectives which are influenced by current and future influences.
Supports corporate goals by helping to create & communicate a vision which can be understood by at all the levels within an organization & helps others to contribute strategic goals. Communicating effectively and efficiently and response to messages and signals from internal as well as external environment. By making effective use of communication channels to all the levels within an organization. Exchange of information takes place in an organization among the Suppliers, Customers and Partners. Listening to every person views carefully and thoughtfully. Selection of personal communication styles and techniques carefully to different situations.
Gathering of information by establishing multiple channels and networks which can be able to generate constant flow of information from inside as well as outside the organization regularly.Consistenly gathering, challenging and using the gathered information in a better way.
After analyzing the information can take over the pre appropriate decisions for an organization. Keeping in mind the problem and solve the problem by selecting best alternative, by considering its impact before its implementation.
Developing effective teams by contribution of others at all levels within an organization ensuring that members are known to the Plans, Team development schemes etc.
Managing yourself by reflecting personal progress of the individual &asking for Feedback that is the result of work done by person.
Adopting a leadership in initiating actions &decision making being open minded and responsive to the needs of others. Working towards personal& career development goals, adopting ethical approach to all personal and organizational activities.

Objective of developing leadership in an organization

The main objective of leaders is to develop leadership skills .some people might believe that leaders are born and not made it is possible to develop leadership skills within an individual. People follow their leaders as they gained trust in them and earned their respect.
It takes a long time to be a leader .so it is advisable to start developing leadership skills as early as possible. There are specific areas where a person has to work on while developing leadership Skills. They are listed as under:

1. Integrity:
Leaders are honest & have high ethics .It is important to learn traits early as they help to gain trust of the people .you can practice some actual situations; this behavior is taking responsibility for your own actions. Donor play blame games when things go wrong .Leaders take personal responsibility for their team’s goals & objectives

2. Passionate:
Leaders are passionate they are very enthusiastic about their work & have the ability to rub the energy off on their followers.

3. Courageous:
Leaders needs to be courageous whom people will follow .Leaders are brave enough to bear risks .The ultimate task of a leader is that it should be courageous.

4. Goal oriented:
Leaders are very mush focused on their objectives which is to be fulfilled by them .They develop a strategic plan to achieve their goals. In addition they also needs to built commitment from team & achieve the organizational objectives.

5. Commitment:
Commitment to work or task is the earliest step Leaders work hard and have strong discipline in following through with their task to attain an objective

6. Developing people:
Developing people by Training ,Coaching or teaching them is the main trait of a good leader .An individual cannot achieve organizational goals individually so to attain the objective they have to work in groups .Leaders develop individuals to build a strong team, so that an organization can achieve their goals effectively and efficiently

7. Prioritize:
Leaders do important things, regardless of the interest of the people. For the leaders whatever is required should be completed with best efforts.

8. No public glory:
Leaders should understand that they will get private credit for their work .Public glory is not at all expected. Leaders know that whatever are their achievements is a result of joint effort of the team. They share glory and credit with rest for the work .They knows that they are as good as their team.

Developing leadership skills is a long process .Some people are might born with such talents. So they develop into leaders much faster .Leadership is a set of behavior, rather than a skill .Leaders upgrades their team, using every encounter opportunity to evaluate. This constant, ongoing commitment to provide learning opportunities is fundamental to develop leaders throughout an organization.
Several considerations can support the development of dispersed leadership including:
Developing a common or shared leadership language
Developing skills required to determine appropriate leadership styles for given situations
Developing a culture that values & enables broad ranging influence and initiative .Many companies develop framework that identify the Leadership Capabilities These helps to create an explicit expectation and understanding about leadership Organization sees the value in adopting and creating complex ways of communication needs and expectation around leader-follower and leader-leader interaction .Leaders and followers are being able to adopt an approach is helpful if we have developed:
A healthy self awareness
An understanding of how to diagnose situations & needs
An appreciation of interpersonal dynamics

Developing leadership has various benefits it encourages informal leadership & provides greater satisfaction of improvements .and fulfillments the culture of such approach is build upon acceptance that organizational journey that provides with opportunities to develop ourselves and others, to lead and to learn


Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior - especially human behavior. These reasons may include a drive, a need, a desire to achieve a goal, a state of being, or an ideal. In human beings, motivation involves both conscious and subconscious drives.
It's my belief that we all have one ultimate motive in common. This motive drives everything we think, everything we feel, and everything we do - from the time we wake in the morning until we go to sleep at night.
I ultimately define motivation as simply our desires, efforts, and attempts to be as happy as possible.
In this case, the term happiness does not necessarily refer to a feeling or emotion. Feelings come and go so it's neither realistic...nor desirable...to hope to remain exclusively in one emotional state.
Rather, used in a context to define motivation, happiness is more like a core state-of-being that describes and contains other states of being such as: contentment, satisfaction, fulfillment, completeness, and wholeness.
By "core state" I mean an underlying, foundational state that remains even in the midst of the storms of life. It's the pursuit of this state-of-being that motivates us to think what we think...feel what we feel...and do what we do.
We all have this same ultimate goal in common... and we are all doing the best we can with what we have to get as close to that ideal as possible.

Types of Motivation - Extrinsic

There are two primary types of motivation... Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Extrinsic Motivation is geared toward external rewards and reinforcers.
Some examples of external rewards are money, praise, awards, etc. Some examples of external rein forcer’s are policy and procedures, disciplinary action, speeding tickets, boundary-setting, etc.
Extrinsic Motivation is said to be less effective because it comes from outside the person. External rein forcer’s, for instance, are usually in the form of control.
Laws are there for social control...Policies and procedures are there for internal controls and regulations... household rules are in place to provide limits and consequence for stepping over the line.
People don't usually like to feel controlled. It's an invitation to rebel, or dig in our heels, or become defiant. Most of use prefers to use our own map of the world...not have to conform to someone else's ideas about how it should be.
According to Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory many external rewards (e.g., salary, job security, and benefits) don't really motivate but if they're not there the person can become de-motivated. Herzberg calls these "hygiene factors".

Types of Motivation - Intrinsic

Intrinsic Motivation is geared toward internal rewards and reins forcer’s. We can celebrate our success when we do well and we can beat ourselves up when we don't.
Some examples of internal rewards are enjoyment, achievement, a sense of competence. Some examples of internal rein forcer’s are "Should", "Musts", & "Ought’s", a guilty conscience, and Toxic Shame.
Internal rewards are associated with high academic and occupational achievement. It seems motivation is strongest when we do it for the fun of it...or for the feeling of accomplishment. Maybe it's a hobby, or a career path, or our purpose in life.

Types of Motivation - Addiction

When it's something we really like we can even feel driven to do it. Or get addicted to it, whatever "it" is... In other words, motivation does not always lead in a positive direction.
Remember that an addiction is an unhealthy "love-and-trust" relationship with an object or an activity. Love and trust are very strong intrinsic rewards that are tied into our neural networks for survival.
Survival needs, such as the need to eat, is an internal reinforce because it causes pain in the form of hunger when we don't eat. We get an internal reward when we enjoy what we are eating.
The same is true when we resist something we are addicted to. The pain is in the form of cravings or withdrawal symptoms and the reward is in the feeling we get when we engage. However, in the late stages of addiction we no longer get the reward but the reinforce gets stronger.

Types of Motivation - Subconscious Motivations

Addiction is an example of subconscious motivation...we may not know "why we do it" or "how that could happen" when we find ourselves in trouble again.
This is because it would be too uncomfortable for us to know that we are dependent on an object or activity so our faithful servant - the subconscious mind - "protects us" from that reality with a system of defense mechanisms we refer to as denial.
Other subconscious types of motivations might include various neural networks created early in life which is now part of Implicit Memory - such as...
• An accident-prone person may have a subconscious desire to hurt or punish himself for guilt over some long-past misdeed or mistake.
• A person who uses food for comfort may have a subconscious "part" of themselves...a neural network...that learned early in life to substitute food for the nurturing that wasn't available.
• Someone who pushes others away may have a part of themselves that sabotages opportunities for intimacy in order to protect from abandonment.
It has long been known that the subconscious mind uses defense mechanisms to ward off pain and anxiety. These defensive strategies are learned programs that run automatically from neural networks that we intuitively refer to as "parts".

All of us can remember explaining that "one part of me wants to do X... but another part of me holds me back". These "parts" are programs installed on conflicting neural networks. There are various forms of therapy for "integrating" these parts to resolve subconscious conflicts.
Types of Motivation - "Toward" or "Away From" Orientation
Most of us have heard of the "Carrot-or-Stick" types of motivation. Conventional wisdom suggests that some people are motivated more by the stick and others by the carrot.
"Stick People" respond better to external and internal reinforcer'swhile "Carrot People" respond better to external and internal rewards.
Another way to look at this is the "Toward or Away From" orientation. Stick people are oriented to move away from pain. Carrot people move toward pleasure.
There are times when each orientation is necessary. For example, if your goal is to manage your weight it's more effective to adopt a "toward pleasure" orientation because the closer you get to your goal (e.g., a healthy lifestyle), the stronger your motivation becomes. If you take the "away from" orientation...the further you get away from a weight you don't like, the weaker your motivation becomes.

Motivation Theories - Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Cognition is any element of knowledge - an attitude, emotion, belief, value, behavior, etc. When two cognitions are in direct conflict with one another a state of anxiety is produced - dissonance is the term for the anxiety.
Compatible cognitions are consonant - i.e. they are in harmony.
A classic example of Cognitive Dissonance is holding the belief that "smoking is bad for you" while continuing the behavior of smoking. These two cognitions are in direct conflict with each other.
The belief that smoking is bad is part of one neural network - perhaps associated with health and fitness - while the behavior of smoking is part of another network having to do with tension management, how to hang with friends, or the like.
So, these cognitions exist in different locations in the brain. Both are trying to accomplish something important for the self - tension management and hanging with friends is important.
When two cognitions are in conflict anxiety (dissonance) is produced and grows until it becomes stronger than the cognition with the lesser amount of resistance to change.
When this threshold is reached the subconscious mind is compelled to change, ignore, or modify the weaker of the two cognitions in order to dispel the anxiety.
The processes of generalization, deletion, and distortion are used to acquire, invent, repress, or modify beliefs to fit better with the behavior - AKA Denial.
In the example of smoking and other addictions repression is a distortion that allows an offending belief that cannot be deleted - "smoking is bad for you" - to be ignored by pushing it out of awareness.
When the subconscious mind does this for you without your conscious awareness it's called repression. When you purposefully and consciously push it out of your awareness its called suppression.

Motivation Theories - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

The American psychologist Abraham Maslow devised a six-level hierarchy of needs that motivate or drive human behavior. I believe that each of these needs must be met in order for one to achieve happiness.
Maslow progressively ranks human needs as follows:
Physiological - food, shelter, clothing
Security and safety
Love and feelings of belonging
Competence, prestige, and esteem
Curiosity and the need to know

Maslow suggests that each preceding need must be met - at least to some degree - before one can go on to the next level.
For instance, a child may not be motivated to pay attention in class if she is preoccupied with hunger because she did not get any breakfast that morning.
Maslow refers to the first four levels as deficiency needs and the last two as growth needs. Deficiency needs that go unmet cause developmental deficits and pain. Unmet needs for growth cause apathy and stagnation - i.e. a lack of motivation.

Case studies on Leadership development

1. Facilitation of executive team of a city housing department
The organization was being privatized and split up. The organization felt itself to be under serious pressure. The senior team tasked with driving through such a major change was itself experiencing difficulties in how it worked, getting side-tracked by fire-fighting and having difficulty having focused discussions. After initial meetings, a leadership development programmers was agreed to help them face their challenges; they were less willing however to look directly at what was happening in their organization. The consultant quickly identified a major cause of the team’s difficulty in the poor contact and listening skills within the team and an inability to come together to discuss major issues and allowed itself to be side-tracked by crises. At one point he interrupted a discussion to point out the body language of participants and gently encourage ownership of their in-the-moment experiencing, which surprised everybody but produced major discussions about what was happening in the team. In effect by facilitating some team building work under the guise of some leadership development sessions, he was able bring the team’s awareness to their contact style and take joint ownership of it, and thus to help the team develop a smooth and effective collaborative style. As a result, the team became much more capable of driving through a major change initiative while being in a high-profile political situation. This also involved supporting the new Chief Executive in establishing himself in role and building his team round his vision.

2. Coaching the leader of the London operation of a US commercial property-related company
The US parent company executive with responsibility for Europe had tasked the leader, who was from the States, with setting up and developing a London-based operation. They were keen for him to have coaching in his leadership style, particularly his presentation style and how he developed his team. It was agreed that the consultant would first observe him in action, leading a team meeting and then hold exploratory discussions with both him and his manager, a US Parent company Board-level executive.
The initial observation threw up a number of areas of development, which when fed back formed the basis for the initial proposition, along with the leader’s own perceptions and those of his manager. What was particularly clear was that the leader lacked personal presence and impact and did not give a clear steer and influence in his interactions with his direct reports. He was a successful leader in achieving sales and now needed to upscale and transform his style to that of his new role. Until he did that, his manager did not see him as being a potential truly senior level operator in the organization.
The coaching initially focused on how he organized himself, since he was swamped by his worked, and then on how he managed and led his team. However, the really impactful part of the coaching was when the coach and the leader worked together in some live presentational practice sessions, involving him in making deliveries and then taking part in “in-the-moment” replays of what was happening to heighten his awareness. Very quickly he saw how he was working and what he needed to change. The consultant then went on to observe him in action in team meetings and then a whole-company presentation at an annual “kick-off”, with immediate feedback. The leader was very focused on implementing what he was learning.
When the coach later caught up with his client, he heard that the leader had been recalled to the States to take over leadership of the US Eastern region. He had succeeded in meeting his manager’s expectations and seen the results.


Developing leadership culture all starts with you and all your colleagues in senior leadership .Three statements can be pointed that would not find in the treatment of change .First, in this new world order, your new work as a leader is about developing culture and talents not about assigning it to someone else that all culture development & change starts with you. Second, the key to successful transformation is doing the work in the senior leadership culture first before taking the change to middle of the organization...Third ,transformation is serious it work for serious people, it is about getting bigger minds to deal with attachments bigger and complex issues that will continue to confront you, your leadership and your organization
We can no longer delegate, defer, demand development from others .The changing role of senior leaders in the changing new world order which requires our commitment to our inside out development as a direct engagement within al self in ourselves .we must develop our internal self in action development with external challenges so that we can prepare a critical role as change guide for others.
Advancing leadership culture means executing strategy while developing leadership talent by choosing right leadership culture that organization requires for future .leadership talent is a collective to new levels of organization capability that secures success.
Inside –out development of leadership beliefs must come with balance with Outside –in changes in the organization’s systems, structure and processes leadership strategy should meets and greets the business strategy that drives a challenge .The organization is like a playground where demand meets the supply
Business issues and goals address future shifting strategic challenges that is a faced by leadership culture. The three foundation of personal readiness, time sense, control source and intentionality are keys to advancing your personal readiness conditions for transformation when leaders demonstrate through decisions and actions to counter traditional assumptions .They create conditions for others to learn and they expand their arena of collaboration exploration, learning and development .These people will together pursue multiple right answers and advance collaboration relationships. More complex issues and build readiness together for leadership in the emerging new world
Achieving a vibrant leadership culture capable of executing your strategy while developing your leadership talent is a hot trick this creates capability for self –perpetuating leadership collectives to continuously recreate organization into endless new
Headroom is a primary development process engine for our leadership culture The change leadership team (CLT) is the executive practice zone for emergence, generation and launch of new leadership beliefs and practices that are seeds of change that we need The culture development cycle represents the collective learning that results in next advancements of leadership logic and culture such a process will continue further and will be proved to be beneficial for an organization


1. www.johnadair.co.uk/articles/Developingtomorrowsleaders.pdf
2 Book Robbin and gilbert.
4. www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/PDFs/653.pdf
5. www.scribd.com/doc/16508600/Developing-Leadership-Skill
6. www.apsc.gov.au/leadership/csiro.pdf
7. www.career-success-for-newbies.com/developing-leadership-skills.html
9. www.sideroad.com › Business › Leadership



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