| MORE FREE TERM PAPERS
LEADERSHIP STYLE AND MOTIVATION
This report is an evaluation of leadership style as it affects motivation
and productivity in work organizations. The terms pertinent to this work
are first defined. Historical and current theories are the presented and
discussed. Theory understanding and implementation are essential to increase
motivation in the organization. Data from leadership style studies is
presented showing that situational determinants, traits, and wide style
range are essential to promote motivation and effective leadership. There
is no single "narrow" leadership style for all occasions rather
the whole leader is needed for optimum productivity.
INTRODUCTION OF LEADERSHIP
Inherent in the definitions of lead, leader, leadership, and leadership
style is the notion of motivation. People generally think of movement,
fulfilling needs, doing, inertia, change, causality, influence, action,
and impact when they ponder about motivation. Of times, questions are
asked about motivation like;
How did A Cause B?
What factor or factors really caused B?
Why was B motivated?
Who had the most impact on B?
Motivation can be considered in two major modes, intrinsic and extrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation is that which comes from within the individual, team,
group, or organization. Its execution brings about production and self-actualization.
Extrinsic motivation is that which originates outside of the individual
or organization under scrutiny. The fulfillment of external motivation
results in what Lawler (1973) calls social rewards. Dyer, (1972) defines
three areas affected by motivation. A
Change in amount, quality, or direction of performance. Dictionary definitions
give more insight into the relationship between leadership and motivation.
To lead means to show the way, to conduct, to escort, to guide, and to
direct. To cause to follow.
to induce, to steer, to tend toward a certain goal or result, to point
the way by going first or by setting an example (all implying some type
of motivation). Of course, a leader is one who executes in some manner
one or more of these processes.
Leadership may be defined as “to go before” or “show a right path” There
is a leader in each and every organization who leads an organization,
further to achieve their objectives. It has been viewed that without a
leader at every level of organization. Our organization can miss opportunities,
stifle innovation, underutilize the employees, fall short of its objective
in customers service,quality,productivity,profitability. Leadership at
all levels makes difference as to whether our company will be around for
long haul, so invest today in leadership to attain success tomorrow’s
developing leadership at all levels in an organization helps to sustain
long term success. Leadership is a complex process through which a person
influences others to accomplish their goal & directs the organization
in a way that makes it cohersive.A leader carries out processes by applying
Leadership attributes ie.beliefs,values,ethics,characteristics, knowledge
Developing leadership covers the broader concept of whom? What? Where?
Is intended to assist in the promotion of leadership development
According to Collins leadership is a very vast concept that includes:
1. Position of leader
2. Period during which person occupies a position of leader within an
3. Ability to lead leadership qualities
4. Leader as a group of union
According to Warren Benes”leadership is focused much more on individual
capability of a leader. It is a function of knowing yourself having a
vision that is communicated, building a trust among colleagues & taking
effective action to realize leadership potential.
“Leadership is an interactive conversation that pulls people towards becoming
comfortable with language of personal responsibility and commitment”
Leadership is not meant for the people of top management, but everyone
can discover power within himself and can lead “leaders are not born they
are made”. Leadership is more about dealing with people verses tasks.
Great Leaders are able to positively influence people to perform the tasks
to them.”Leadership is effectively influencing others”
Leadership is one of those areas about which huge amount is said while
leaving a big question unanswered
Who is a leader?
• Someone who is not a natural leader leadership programmers to run
where natural leaders can develop skills to become great ones
• Training Programmers’ push them to gain insight, to comfortably stretch
• Once you are able to see what is going on, then you can move on to developing
Essential skills of leadership:
• Good communication
• Being articulate
• Think on your feet
• Compelling presence
• Innovative &promoting change
• Having ability to develop as a leader
• Focus on people
• Inspiring trust among members
• Long range perspective
• Changing status
1. Need is to demonstrate the kind of leadership
2. Managers can take step &can go beyond expectations to become inspirational
3. Good leaders smoothly brings big changes within an organization
4. If members are ready for promotion then they have to understand next
5. Leadership development is all about what you need to help company’s
progress to next level
LEADERSHIP STYLE THEORIES
According to one well respected behaviorist, Warren Bennis, leadership
theory seems to be very unclear. “Of all the hazy and confounding
areas in social psychology, leadership theory undoubtedly contends for
top nomination. And ironically, probably more has been written and less
is known about leadership than about any other topic in the behavioral
sciences” (Bennis cit. in Weed, 1972).
The probable reason for such a statement is the multiplicity of terminology
which has been applied to an equally voluminous number of models and viewpoints
about leadership and leadership style. Perhaps the best categorical description
of many of these theories is found in Stogdill (1974). He separates the
many theories and theorists into basically six camps. Great man and trait
theories are some of the earliest dating back to the nineteenth century.
During the first half of the twentieth century environmental theories
emerged. Overlapping the environmental theories were the personal-situational
theories propounded during the time between the thirties and the sixties.
The final three categories have come to the forefront in the past twenty
years. They include the interaction-expectation theories, the humanistic
theories, and the exchange theories. Petit (1975) discusses three factors
which are involved in these different theories of leadership style. They
are the traits of the leader and his followers, the behaviors of the leaders
and his followers, as well as the situation in which leadership is exercised.
Early Leadership Theories:
The great man and trait theories of leadership originated through looking
at the traits and heritage of leaders demonstrating impact in the past.
According to these theories there are certain traits or certain biologically
inherited characteristics that leaders have which motivate the masses
This theory type is narrow in that it disregards other essential factors
which are considered later in the development of leadership theory. That
is not to say, however, that traits and other personal characteristics
are not important in motivational leadership.
The environmental or situational theories focused on the societal-group
factors which produce and promote leadership. The motivational leadership
style of the leader or leaders was thought to be dependent only upon the
situation according to this view. Those who proposed this theory made
the same mistake which the 'great man-trait' theorists made; that of being
too narrow in their observations and conclusions. It is apparent however
that the group, place. Time and circumstances do play an important part
in motivating workers to action.
The next group of theories to emerge combined the trait and situational
factors in what Stogdill calls the personal situational theories. This
group of theories began as a two factor theory considering the traits
and external conditions of the leader. Next it expanded to a three factor
theory which included the task of the group. Some of the major personal-situational
leadership theorists include Warren Bennis, J.R. Gibb, and others.
Modern Leadership Theories:
The interaction-expectation theories look to the expectations or valence
of those involved in the work relationship. They recommend that these
expectations are promoted through the continuity or lack of it as seen
by the subordinates and supervisors. The focus of the development of motivation
is in the sentiments of the involved parties during and following the
processes of interaction. Proponents of
Interaction-expectation theories are Fred Fiedler, R.J. House, G.C. Homans,
Ralph Stogdill and others. The exchange theories point out a joint contribution
to organizational motivation by the subordinates and supervisors. The
organizational members provide social rewards for each other and receive
back the same. When this social exchange occurs on an equitable basis
motivation and productivity are optimized.
The humanistic theories began with a basic assumption that people have
a natural inner motivation. This motivation (when freedom and creativity
are promoted in the organization) is translated into productivity. There
are many models of these theories which have many similarities.
These include Chris Argyris' (1964) organization vs. individual model,
the Blake-Mouton (1964) managerial grid, Douglas McGregor's (1966) theory
X and theory Y model, the Task-Person leadership style model proposed
by Sergiovanni, Metzcus, and Burden (1969), the Hersey-Blanchard (1972)
L.A.S.I. task-relationship model, as well as others. These humanistic
theories have had the biggest thrust during the past decade and are still
much in vogue among management specialists and organizational development
agents. When these humanistic theories first emerged an assumption was
made by some that there might be a best leadership style for any and all
situations. As this assumption
And these theories were tested and evolved; researchers found no best
style for all situations but found that style adaptability is a major
key to high motivation and productivity. Style adaptability according
to Hersey-Blanchard (1972) is the degree to which a leader is able to
adapt his behaviors to the demands of various situations in order to accrue
appropriate results in those situations. The humanistic theories show
four basic generalized leadership styles. Different workers name them
Developing leadership skills:
Every level of organization requires characteristics as a key for effective
Leadership. The essential attributes of Leadership development are the
Followers. Learning and understanding different functions an organization
should work together understanding the complexities & changes happening
in external environment.analysing strengths,weakenesses,opportunities
& threats to understand the strategic objectives which are influenced
by current and future influences.
Supports corporate goals by helping to create & communicate a vision
which can be understood by at all the levels within an organization &
helps others to contribute strategic goals. Communicating effectively
and efficiently and response to messages and signals from internal as
well as external environment. By making effective use of communication
channels to all the levels within an organization. Exchange of information
takes place in an organization among the Suppliers, Customers and Partners.
Listening to every person views carefully and thoughtfully. Selection
of personal communication styles and techniques carefully to different
Gathering of information by establishing multiple channels and networks
which can be able to generate constant flow of information from inside
as well as outside the organization regularly.Consistenly gathering, challenging
and using the gathered information in a better way.
After analyzing the information can take over the pre appropriate decisions
for an organization. Keeping in mind the problem and solve the problem
by selecting best alternative, by considering its impact before its implementation.
Developing effective teams by contribution of others at all levels within
an organization ensuring that members are known to the Plans, Team development
Managing yourself by reflecting personal progress of the individual &asking
for Feedback that is the result of work done by person.
Adopting a leadership in initiating actions &decision making being
open minded and responsive to the needs of others. Working towards personal&
career development goals, adopting ethical approach to all personal and
Objective of developing leadership in an organization
The main objective of leaders is to develop leadership skills .some people
might believe that leaders are born and not made it is possible to develop
leadership skills within an individual. People follow their leaders as
they gained trust in them and earned their respect.
It takes a long time to be a leader .so it is advisable to start developing
leadership skills as early as possible. There are specific areas where
a person has to work on while developing leadership Skills. They are listed
Leaders are honest & have high ethics .It is important to learn traits
early as they help to gain trust of the people .you can practice some
actual situations; this behavior is taking responsibility for your own
actions. Donor play blame games when things go wrong .Leaders take personal
responsibility for their team’s goals & objectives
Leaders are passionate they are very enthusiastic about their work &
have the ability to rub the energy off on their followers.
Leaders needs to be courageous whom people will follow .Leaders are brave
enough to bear risks .The ultimate task of a leader is that it should
4. Goal oriented:
Leaders are very mush focused on their objectives which is to be fulfilled
by them .They develop a strategic plan to achieve their goals. In addition
they also needs to built commitment from team & achieve the organizational
Commitment to work or task is the earliest step Leaders work hard and
have strong discipline in following through with their task to attain
6. Developing people:
Developing people by Training ,Coaching or teaching them is the main trait
of a good leader .An individual cannot achieve organizational goals individually
so to attain the objective they have to work in groups .Leaders develop
individuals to build a strong team, so that an organization can achieve
their goals effectively and efficiently
Leaders do important things, regardless of the interest of the people.
For the leaders whatever is required should be completed with best efforts.
8. No public glory:
Leaders should understand that they will get private credit for their
work .Public glory is not at all expected. Leaders know that whatever
are their achievements is a result of joint effort of the team. They share
glory and credit with rest for the work .They knows that they are as good
as their team.
Developing leadership skills is a long process .Some people are might
born with such talents. So they develop into leaders much faster .Leadership
is a set of behavior, rather than a skill .Leaders upgrades their team,
using every encounter opportunity to evaluate. This constant, ongoing
commitment to provide learning opportunities is fundamental to develop
leaders throughout an organization.
Several considerations can support the development of dispersed leadership
Developing a common or shared leadership language
Developing skills required to determine appropriate leadership styles
for given situations
Developing a culture that values & enables broad ranging influence
and initiative .Many companies develop framework that identify the Leadership
Capabilities These helps to create an explicit expectation and understanding
about leadership Organization sees the value in adopting and creating
complex ways of communication needs and expectation around leader-follower
and leader-leader interaction .Leaders and followers are being able to
adopt an approach is helpful if we have developed:
A healthy self awareness
An understanding of how to diagnose situations & needs
An appreciation of interpersonal dynamics
Developing leadership has various benefits it encourages informal leadership
& provides greater satisfaction of improvements .and fulfillments
the culture of such approach is build upon acceptance that organizational
journey that provides with opportunities to develop ourselves and others,
to lead and to learn
Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason
or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior - especially human behavior.
These reasons may include a drive, a need, a desire to achieve a goal,
a state of being, or an ideal. In human beings, motivation involves both
conscious and subconscious drives.
It's my belief that we all have one ultimate motive in common. This motive
drives everything we think, everything we feel, and everything we do -
from the time we wake in the morning until we go to sleep at night.
I ultimately define motivation as simply our desires, efforts, and attempts
to be as happy as possible.
In this case, the term happiness does not necessarily refer to a feeling
or emotion. Feelings come and go so it's neither realistic...nor desirable...to
hope to remain exclusively in one emotional state.
Rather, used in a context to define motivation, happiness is more like
a core state-of-being that describes and contains other states of being
such as: contentment, satisfaction, fulfillment, completeness, and wholeness.
By "core state" I mean an underlying, foundational state that
remains even in the midst of the storms of life. It's the pursuit of this
state-of-being that motivates us to think what we think...feel what we
feel...and do what we do.
We all have this same ultimate goal in common... and we are all doing
the best we can with what we have to get as close to that ideal as possible.
Types of Motivation - Extrinsic
There are two primary types of motivation... Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Motivation. Extrinsic Motivation is geared toward external rewards and
Some examples of external rewards are money, praise, awards, etc. Some
examples of external rein forcer’s are policy and procedures, disciplinary
action, speeding tickets, boundary-setting, etc.
Extrinsic Motivation is said to be less effective because it comes from
outside the person. External rein forcer’s, for instance, are usually
in the form of control.
Laws are there for social control...Policies and procedures are there
for internal controls and regulations... household rules are in place
to provide limits and consequence for stepping over the line.
People don't usually like to feel controlled. It's an invitation to rebel,
or dig in our heels, or become defiant. Most of use prefers to use our
own map of the world...not have to conform to someone else's ideas about
how it should be.
According to Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory many external rewards (e.g.,
salary, job security, and benefits) don't really motivate but if they're
not there the person can become de-motivated. Herzberg calls these "hygiene
Types of Motivation - Intrinsic
Intrinsic Motivation is geared toward internal rewards and reins forcer’s.
We can celebrate our success when we do well and we can beat ourselves
up when we don't.
Some examples of internal rewards are enjoyment, achievement, a sense
of competence. Some examples of internal rein forcer’s are "Should",
"Musts", & "Ought’s", a guilty conscience, and
Internal rewards are associated with high academic and occupational achievement.
It seems motivation is strongest when we do it for the fun of it...or
for the feeling of accomplishment. Maybe it's a hobby, or a career path,
or our purpose in life.
Types of Motivation - Addiction
When it's something we really like we can even feel driven to do it. Or
get addicted to it, whatever "it" is... In other words, motivation
does not always lead in a positive direction.
Remember that an addiction is an unhealthy "love-and-trust"
relationship with an object or an activity. Love and trust are very strong
intrinsic rewards that are tied into our neural networks for survival.
Survival needs, such as the need to eat, is an internal reinforce because
it causes pain in the form of hunger when we don't eat. We get an internal
reward when we enjoy what we are eating.
The same is true when we resist something we are addicted to. The pain
is in the form of cravings or withdrawal symptoms and the reward is in
the feeling we get when we engage. However, in the late stages of addiction
we no longer get the reward but the reinforce gets stronger.
Types of Motivation - Subconscious Motivations
Addiction is an example of subconscious motivation...we may not know "why
we do it" or "how that could happen" when we find ourselves
in trouble again.
This is because it would be too uncomfortable for us to know that we are
dependent on an object or activity so our faithful servant - the subconscious
mind - "protects us" from that reality with a system of defense
mechanisms we refer to as denial.
Other subconscious types of motivations might include various neural networks
created early in life which is now part of Implicit Memory - such as...
• An accident-prone person may have a subconscious desire to hurt
or punish himself for guilt over some long-past misdeed or mistake.
• A person who uses food for comfort may have a subconscious "part"
of themselves...a neural network...that learned early in life to substitute
food for the nurturing that wasn't available.
• Someone who pushes others away may have a part of themselves that sabotages
opportunities for intimacy in order to protect from abandonment.
It has long been known that the subconscious mind uses defense mechanisms
to ward off pain and anxiety. These defensive strategies are learned programs
that run automatically from neural networks that we intuitively refer
to as "parts".
All of us can remember explaining that "one part of me wants to do
X... but another part of me holds me back". These "parts"
are programs installed on conflicting neural networks. There are various
forms of therapy for "integrating" these parts to resolve subconscious
Types of Motivation - "Toward" or "Away From" Orientation
Most of us have heard of the "Carrot-or-Stick" types of motivation.
Conventional wisdom suggests that some people are motivated more by the
stick and others by the carrot.
"Stick People" respond better to external and internal reinforcer'swhile
"Carrot People" respond better to external and internal rewards.
Another way to look at this is the "Toward or Away From" orientation.
Stick people are oriented to move away from pain. Carrot people move toward
There are times when each orientation is necessary. For example, if your
goal is to manage your weight it's more effective to adopt a "toward
pleasure" orientation because the closer you get to your goal (e.g.,
a healthy lifestyle), the stronger your motivation becomes. If you take
the "away from" orientation...the further you get away from
a weight you don't like, the weaker your motivation becomes.
Motivation Theories - Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognition is any element of knowledge - an attitude, emotion, belief,
value, behavior, etc. When two cognitions are in direct conflict with
one another a state of anxiety is produced - dissonance is the term for
Compatible cognitions are consonant - i.e. they are in harmony.
A classic example of Cognitive Dissonance is holding the belief that "smoking
is bad for you" while continuing the behavior of smoking. These two
cognitions are in direct conflict with each other.
The belief that smoking is bad is part of one neural network - perhaps
associated with health and fitness - while the behavior of smoking is
part of another network having to do with tension management, how to hang
with friends, or the like.
So, these cognitions exist in different locations in the brain. Both are
trying to accomplish something important for the self - tension management
and hanging with friends is important.
When two cognitions are in conflict anxiety (dissonance) is produced and
grows until it becomes stronger than the cognition with the lesser amount
of resistance to change.
When this threshold is reached the subconscious mind is compelled to change,
ignore, or modify the weaker of the two cognitions in order to dispel
The processes of generalization, deletion, and distortion are used to
acquire, invent, repress, or modify beliefs to fit better with the behavior
- AKA Denial.
In the example of smoking and other addictions repression is a distortion
that allows an offending belief that cannot be deleted - "smoking
is bad for you" - to be ignored by pushing it out of awareness.
When the subconscious mind does this for you without your conscious awareness
it's called repression. When you purposefully and consciously push it
out of your awareness its called suppression.
Motivation Theories - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
The American psychologist Abraham Maslow devised a six-level hierarchy
of needs that motivate or drive human behavior. I believe that each of
these needs must be met in order for one to achieve happiness.
Maslow progressively ranks human needs as follows:
• Physiological - food, shelter, clothing
• Security and safety
• Love and feelings of belonging
• Competence, prestige, and esteem
• Curiosity and the need to know
Maslow suggests that each preceding need must be met - at least to some
degree - before one can go on to the next level.
For instance, a child may not be motivated to pay attention in class if
she is preoccupied with hunger because she did not get any breakfast that
Maslow refers to the first four levels as deficiency needs and the last
two as growth needs. Deficiency needs that go unmet cause developmental
deficits and pain. Unmet needs for growth cause apathy and stagnation
- i.e. a lack of motivation.
Case studies on Leadership development
1. Facilitation of executive team of a city housing department
The organization was being privatized and split up. The organization felt
itself to be under serious pressure. The senior team tasked with driving
through such a major change was itself experiencing difficulties in how
it worked, getting side-tracked by fire-fighting and having difficulty
having focused discussions. After initial meetings, a leadership development
programmers was agreed to help them face their challenges; they were less
willing however to look directly at what was happening in their organization.
The consultant quickly identified a major cause of the team’s difficulty
in the poor contact and listening skills within the team and an inability
to come together to discuss major issues and allowed itself to be side-tracked
by crises. At one point he interrupted a discussion to point out the body
language of participants and gently encourage ownership of their in-the-moment
experiencing, which surprised everybody but produced major discussions
about what was happening in the team. In effect by facilitating some team
building work under the guise of some leadership development sessions,
he was able bring the team’s awareness to their contact style and take
joint ownership of it, and thus to help the team develop a smooth and
effective collaborative style. As a result, the team became much more
capable of driving through a major change initiative while being in a
high-profile political situation. This also involved supporting the new
Chief Executive in establishing himself in role and building his team
round his vision.
2. Coaching the leader of the London operation of a US commercial
The US parent company executive with responsibility for Europe had tasked
the leader, who was from the States, with setting up and developing a
London-based operation. They were keen for him to have coaching in his
leadership style, particularly his presentation style and how he developed
his team. It was agreed that the consultant would first observe him in
action, leading a team meeting and then hold exploratory discussions with
both him and his manager, a US Parent company Board-level executive.
The initial observation threw up a number of areas of development, which
when fed back formed the basis for the initial proposition, along with
the leader’s own perceptions and those of his manager. What was particularly
clear was that the leader lacked personal presence and impact and did
not give a clear steer and influence in his interactions with his direct
reports. He was a successful leader in achieving sales and now needed
to upscale and transform his style to that of his new role. Until he did
that, his manager did not see him as being a potential truly senior level
operator in the organization.
The coaching initially focused on how he organized himself, since he was
swamped by his worked, and then on how he managed and led his team. However,
the really impactful part of the coaching was when the coach and the leader
worked together in some live presentational practice sessions, involving
him in making deliveries and then taking part in “in-the-moment” replays
of what was happening to heighten his awareness. Very quickly he saw how
he was working and what he needed to change. The consultant then went
on to observe him in action in team meetings and then a whole-company
presentation at an annual “kick-off”, with immediate feedback. The leader
was very focused on implementing what he was learning.
When the coach later caught up with his client, he heard that the leader
had been recalled to the States to take over leadership of the US Eastern
region. He had succeeded in meeting his manager’s expectations and seen
Developing leadership culture all starts with you and all your colleagues
in senior leadership .Three statements can be pointed that would not find
in the treatment of change .First, in this new world order, your new work
as a leader is about developing culture and talents not about assigning
it to someone else that all culture development & change starts with
you. Second, the key to successful transformation is doing the work in
the senior leadership culture first before taking the change to middle
of the organization...Third ,transformation is serious it work for serious
people, it is about getting bigger minds to deal with attachments bigger
and complex issues that will continue to confront you, your leadership
and your organization
We can no longer delegate, defer, demand development from others .The
changing role of senior leaders in the changing new world order which
requires our commitment to our inside out development as a direct engagement
within al self in ourselves .we must develop our internal self in action
development with external challenges so that we can prepare a critical
role as change guide for others.
Advancing leadership culture means executing strategy while developing
leadership talent by choosing right leadership culture that organization
requires for future .leadership talent is a collective to new levels of
organization capability that secures success.
Inside –out development of leadership beliefs must come with balance with
Outside –in changes in the organization’s systems, structure and processes
leadership strategy should meets and greets the business strategy that
drives a challenge .The organization is like a playground where demand
meets the supply
Business issues and goals address future shifting strategic challenges
that is a faced by leadership culture. The three foundation of personal
readiness, time sense, control source and intentionality are keys to advancing
your personal readiness conditions for transformation when leaders demonstrate
through decisions and actions to counter traditional assumptions .They
create conditions for others to learn and they expand their arena of collaboration
exploration, learning and development .These people will together pursue
multiple right answers and advance collaboration relationships. More complex
issues and build readiness together for leadership in the emerging new
Achieving a vibrant leadership culture capable of executing your strategy
while developing your leadership talent is a hot trick this creates capability
for self –perpetuating leadership collectives to continuously recreate
organization into endless new
Headroom is a primary development process engine for our leadership culture
The change leadership team (CLT) is the executive practice zone for emergence,
generation and launch of new leadership beliefs and practices that are
seeds of change that we need The culture development cycle represents
the collective learning that results in next advancements of leadership
logic and culture such a process will continue further and will be proved
to be beneficial for an organization
2 Book Robbin and gilbert.
9. www.sideroad.com › Business › Leadership
FREE TERM PAPER »
FREE TERM PAPERS