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Managing employee resistance to changeManaging employee resistance to change is the very important part of the management practices and organizational behaviour. So in this part change the doing work.
The managerial challenges facing Alex lee in encouraging creativity and innovation among his entire employee are certainly not unique. Big companies and small business, universities and colleges, state and city govermentsand even the military are forced to be innovation. Although innovation has always been a part of the manager’s job, it has become even more important in recent year. We shall describe why innovation is important and how managers can manage innovation in the resistance to change. Managers looking at change and how manage change its.
Employee resistance change can actually thesaurus an organization.
Organizational change can generate skepticisms and resistance in employees, making it sometimes difficult or impossible to implement organizational improvements. If management does not understand the believe and make an effort to work. Any management achieve the goal on the maximum befits.
According to David Russo: chief people officer at sass institute, gives a speech about how to win employee loyalty, it does not take long for someone in the audience to raise their hand and explain why that cannot be done. Manager’s job would be relatively easy. Planning would be simple because tomorrow would be no different from today.
Competitors did not introduce new product or services, if customers did not demand new and improved products, if governmental regulations were never modified or if an employee needs never changed. But that is not the way it is. Change is an organizational reality and managing change is aninterral part of every manager’s and internal forces that constrain the manager.

Change Management

Change management is a structure approach, so they are dependent upon the each person, collection of group they called the team and the organizations from desire the current state and future state. In the change management and organization change management, process and individual change model working on the same time, and each people uses the all rules. In the given bellow lines explain the two type of the change management:
- Individual change management
- Organizational change management

Individual change management:

A number of models are available for understanding the transitioning of individuals through the phases of change management and strengthening organizational development initiative in both government and corporate sector. In the individual change management, working on the each person to change .so this is very important part of the change management. So in the individual change management, changes the all work for the person to person.

Organizational change managing:

Organizational change management includes the process and tools for managing the people side of the change at an organizational level. When combined with an understanding of individual change management, these tools provided framework for managing the people side in change. In the organizational change management, working on the group of the people to change, so they are called the team to change .so this is very important part of the organizational management. So in the organizational change management, changes the all work for the group of the people. So they are change the organizational management.

Role of management

Change management is the very important role of the management. Which is the very important responsibility for the managmment.managment are handle the all the changes in big environment and the small environment. Administrator is change the political in the management. So they are indicating the new and old working for the new trends. So it is the very important for this. Then they are not changes in the behavior of emoplyee.and they are not changing for do the work. In the doing work they are used the work process, technological requirements and the motivation. So this is the very important things of the management. So for this things working in the organization the employee are changed or not. And working process are changed or not in the organization. And they are accepted the changes or not. And the employees are implementing these things.

Forces for change

What managers everywhere must do change? If it were not for change, the manager’s job would be relatively easy. Planning would be simple because tomorrow would be no different from today. So they are very important part of the change managing. So there are two parts of forces for changes. So they are explaining the given bellow line:
- external forces
- internal forces

External forces:

The external forces that create the need for change come from various sources. In recent year, the market place has affected firms. Governmental laws and regulation are a frequent impetus for changes. Technology also creates the need for change. For example: technological improvements in diagnostic equipment have created significant economies of scale for hospital and medicals.
profound changes taking place in the Chinese economy are creating labor shortages at hundreds of factory as seen in the many public job posting at this location in Shenzhen china managers the around the world must expect that wages in china may go up as the middle class continues to grow, which will have an impact on the price of manufacturing goods.

Internal forces:

Internal forces also create the need for change. These internal forces tend to originate from the internal operations of the organization or form the impact of external changes. In the addition, an organization’s workforce is rarely static. it’s composition changes in term of age, education, ethnic background, sex and so fouth.the introduction of new equipment represents another internal forces for change. Employee may have their jobs redesigned; need to undergo training on how to operate the new equipment. Finally, employee attitudes such as job dissatisfaction may lead to increased absenteeism, more voluntary resignation, and even labor strikes. Such events often lead to changes in the management policies and practices.

Change process

We can use two very different metaphors to describe the changes process. One metaphor envisions the organization as large ship crossing a calm sea. Change comes in the form of an occasional stomata brief distraction in an otherwise calm and predictable trip. In the calm waters metaphor, change is seen as an occasional disruption in the normal flow of events. There are two type of the change process so they are explaining the given bellow line:
- the calm waters metaphor
- white water rapids metaphor

The calm waters metaphor

According to lowing:
Successful change can be planned and requires unfreezing the status quo, changing to a new state, and refreezing to make the change permanent. The status quo is considered an equilibrium state. to move out of this equilibrium unfreezing is necessary.ungreezing can be thought of as preparing for the needed change. it can be done by increasing the driving forces, which are forces pushing for change, by decreasing the restraining forces, which are forces that resistance change.

White water rapids metaphor:

The white water rapids metaphor is consistent with our discussion of uncertain and dynamic environments in change management. It is also consistent with a world that’s increasingly dominated by information, idea, and knowledge.
To get a feeling for what managing change might be like when you have to continually maneuver in uninterrupted and uncertain rapids, consider attending a college that had the following rules.
Is the white water rapids metaphor an exaggeration? Probably not! Although you would expect this type of chaotic and dynamic environment in high tech industries, even organization in non high tech industries are faced with constant change. So explain the all white water rapids metaphor.

Type of change

What can a manager change? There are three types:
- Structure
- Technology
- People

Changing structure includes any changes in structural variables such as reporting relationship, coordination mechanisms, employee empowerments, or job redesign. Changing technology encompasses modification in the way work is performed or the methods and equipment that are used. Changing people refers to changes in attitudes, expectation, perception, and behavior of in attitude, expectation, perception, and behavior of individuals or groups.

Changing structure:

Manager’s organizing responsibilities include such activities as designing the organizational structure, allocating authority, and determining how formalized the organization will be, once those structural decisions have been made, however, they are not final. Changing conditions or changing strategies bring about the need to make structural changes.

Changing technology:

Managers can also changes the technology used to convert input into output. Most early management studies such as the work of Taylor and the Gilbert’s dealt with changing technology. if you recall, scientific management sought to implement changes that would increase production efficiency based on time and motion stuides.today, technological changes usually involve the introduction of new equipment, tools, methods, automation or computerization. Competitive factor or new innovations within an industry often require managers to introduce new equipment, tools or operating method.
Coal mining company in New South Wales updated operational methods, installed more efficient coal handling equipment and made changes in work practices to be more productive. Even the army applied sophisticated technology to its operations, including such advancement as three dimensional shootout training devices and high speed data links among troops on the battlefield.

Changing people:

Changing people means, changing attitudes, expectation, perception and behaviors’ is not easy. Yet, for almost 40 year, academic researchers and actual managers have been interested in finding ways for individuals and groups within organizations to work together more effectively. The term organizational development, though occasionally referring to all type of change, essentially focuses on techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationship. The common thread in these techniques is that each seeks to bring about changes in the organization’s people.
executives at Scotia bank, Canada’s second largest bank, knew that the success of a new customer sales and services strategy depended on changing employee attitude and behaviour.managers used different organizational development techniques during the strategic change include team building, survey feedback, and intergroup development.

How can cultural change be accomplished?

If conditions are right, how do managers change culture? No single action is likely to have the impact the necessary to change something that’s so ingrained and highly valued. Managers need to have a strategy for managing cultural change, as described in exhibit.
as you can see, these suggestion focus on specific action that managers can take to change the cultural. Following these suggestions, however, is no guarantee that a manager’s cultural change efforts will succeed. Organizational members do not quickly let go of values that they understand and that have worked well for them in the past managers must be patient. Change, if it comes, will be slow. And managers must stay alert to protect against any return to old, familiar practices and tradition.
Strategies for managing cultural change:
There are many strategies for managing cultural changes in the change management. So they are explaining the given bellow line:
- Set the tone through management behaviour, top managers, particularly, need to be positive role models.
- Create new stories, symbols, and rituals to replace those currently in use.
- Select, promote, and support employee who adopt the new values.
- Redesign socialization processes to align with the new values.
- To encourage acceptance of the new value, change the reward system.
- Replace unwritten norms with clearly specified expectation.
- Shake up current subcultures through job transfer, job rotation, and termination.
- Work to get consensus through employee participation and creating a climate with a high level of trust.

What can change a leader?

There are many changes in the organizational so leader is taking the some decision in the firm. So leader is giving the some suggestion:
- Create a simple, compelling statement of the need for change.
- Communicate constantly and honestly throughout the process.
- Get as much employee participation as possible.
- Respect employee’s apprehension about the change but encourage them to flexible.
- Remove those who resist but only after all possible attempts have been made to get their commitment to the change.
- Aim for short term change successes because large scale change can be a long time coming.
- Set a positive of the change management.

How do managers manage organizational change?

managers manage the organizational change, so they are explaining the given bellow line:
- Manager adopts the type of organizational change.
- Change in structure could be structural components or structural design.
- Change in technology could be operating methods, automation or computerization.
- Changing people, organizational development is used to change people that are their attitudes, expectations and behavior.
- Change agent may be needed to act as a catalyst and to manage the change process.
- Resistance to change comes from uncertainty, habit, and concern over the personal losses, and belief that change is not in organization’s best interests.
- Managers can manage resistance by using education and communication, participation facilitation and support, negotiation, manipulation and cooperation, selecting people who accept change and coercion.

What current change issues are managers facing?

Managers are facing various changes in change management. So they are explaining the given bellow line:
- Changing organizational culture is difficult, so condition has to be favorable before managers can do it.
- Handling employee streets, which organizational change often creates?
- Stress involves excessive pressure coming from extraordinary demands, constraints or opportunities.
- Stress is a global problem, but is not always bad.
- Potentate stress becomes actual stress when there is uncertainty over an important outcome.
- Stress can come from job related and personal factor.
- Stress symptoms include physical, psychological, and behavioral.
- There are ways for managers to reduce job related stress and to offer help for personal stress.
- Make change happen successfully by making the organization ready for change, being a change leader, and increasing the role of other in change

How can managers manage the innovation?

Innovation and creativity are not the same. Creativity is combining ideas in a unique way or making unusual associations between ideas. Innovation is turning the outcomes of the creative process into useful products or work methods. Input process output perspective of innovation. Factors that affect innovation.
Structural variables:
Organic type structure, plentiful resources, frequent internet communication, minimal time pressures, support for creative work form work and no work sources.
Cultural variables:
Accept ambiguity, tolerate the impractical, keep controls to a minimum, tolerate risk and conflict, focus on goals, monitor the environment, and provide positive feedback.
Human resources variables:
Training and development, high job security, and creative people (idea champion).



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