employee resistance to change is the very important part of the management
practices and organizational behaviour. So in this part change the doing
The managerial challenges facing Alex lee in encouraging creativity
and innovation among his entire employee are certainly not unique. Big
companies and small business, universities and colleges, state and city
govermentsand even the military are forced to be innovation. Although
innovation has always been a part of the manager’s job, it has become
even more important in recent year. We shall describe why innovation
is important and how managers can manage innovation in the resistance
to change. Managers looking at change and how manage change its.
Employee resistance change can actually thesaurus an organization.
Organizational change can generate skepticisms and resistance in employees,
making it sometimes difficult or impossible to implement organizational
improvements. If management does not understand the believe and make
an effort to work. Any management achieve the goal on the maximum befits.
According to David Russo: chief people officer at sass institute, gives
a speech about how to win employee loyalty, it does not take long for
someone in the audience to raise their hand and explain why that cannot
be done. Manager’s job would be relatively easy. Planning would be simple
because tomorrow would be no different from today.
Competitors did not introduce new product or services, if customers
did not demand new and improved products, if governmental regulations
were never modified or if an employee needs never changed. But that
is not the way it is. Change is an organizational reality and managing
change is aninterral part of every manager’s and internal forces that
constrain the manager.
Change management is a structure approach, so they are dependent upon
the each person, collection of group they called the team and the organizations
from desire the current state and future state. In the change management
and organization change management, process and individual change model
working on the same time, and each people uses the all rules. In the
given bellow lines explain the two type of the change management:
- Individual change management
- Organizational change management
Individual change management:
A number of models are available for understanding the transitioning
of individuals through the phases of change management and strengthening
organizational development initiative in both government and corporate
sector. In the individual change management, working on the each person
to change .so this is very important part of the change management.
So in the individual change management, changes the all work for the
person to person.
Organizational change managing:
Organizational change management includes the process and tools for
managing the people side of the change at an organizational level. When
combined with an understanding of individual change management, these
tools provided framework for managing the people side in change. In
the organizational change management, working on the group of the people
to change, so they are called the team to change .so this is very important
part of the organizational management. So in the organizational change
management, changes the all work for the group of the people. So they
are change the organizational management.
Role of management
Change management is the very important role of the management. Which
is the very important responsibility for the managmment.managment are
handle the all the changes in big environment and the small environment.
Administrator is change the political in the management. So they are
indicating the new and old working for the new trends. So it is the
very important for this. Then they are not changes in the behavior of
emoplyee.and they are not changing for do the work. In the doing work
they are used the work process, technological requirements and the motivation.
So this is the very important things of the management. So for this
things working in the organization the employee are changed or not.
And working process are changed or not in the organization. And they
are accepted the changes or not. And the employees are implementing
Forces for change
What managers everywhere must do change? If it were not for change,
the manager’s job would be relatively easy. Planning would be simple
because tomorrow would be no different from today. So they are very
important part of the change managing. So there are two parts of forces
for changes. So they are explaining the given bellow line:
- external forces
- internal forces
The external forces that create the need for change come from various
sources. In recent year, the market place has affected firms. Governmental
laws and regulation are a frequent impetus for changes. Technology also
creates the need for change. For example: technological improvements
in diagnostic equipment have created significant economies of scale
for hospital and medicals.
profound changes taking place in the Chinese economy are creating labor
shortages at hundreds of factory as seen in the many public job posting
at this location in Shenzhen china managers the around the world must
expect that wages in china may go up as the middle class continues to
grow, which will have an impact on the price of manufacturing goods.
Internal forces also create the need for change. These internal forces
tend to originate from the internal operations of the organization or
form the impact of external changes. In the addition, an organization’s
workforce is rarely static. it’s composition changes in term of age,
education, ethnic background, sex and so fouth.the introduction of new
equipment represents another internal forces for change. Employee may
have their jobs redesigned; need to undergo training on how to operate
the new equipment. Finally, employee attitudes such as job dissatisfaction
may lead to increased absenteeism, more voluntary resignation, and even
labor strikes. Such events often lead to changes in the management policies
We can use two very different metaphors to describe the changes process.
One metaphor envisions the organization as large ship crossing a calm
sea. Change comes in the form of an occasional stomata brief distraction
in an otherwise calm and predictable trip. In the calm waters metaphor,
change is seen as an occasional disruption in the normal flow of events.
There are two type of the change process so they are explaining the
given bellow line:
- the calm waters metaphor
- white water rapids metaphor
The calm waters metaphor
According to lowing:
Successful change can be planned and requires unfreezing the status
quo, changing to a new state, and refreezing to make the change permanent.
The status quo is considered an equilibrium state. to move out of this
equilibrium unfreezing is necessary.ungreezing can be thought of as
preparing for the needed change. it can be done by increasing the driving
forces, which are forces pushing for change, by decreasing the restraining
forces, which are forces that resistance change.
White water rapids metaphor:
The white water rapids metaphor is consistent with our discussion of
uncertain and dynamic environments in change management. It is also
consistent with a world that’s increasingly dominated by information,
idea, and knowledge.
To get a feeling for what managing change might be like when you have
to continually maneuver in uninterrupted and uncertain rapids, consider
attending a college that had the following rules.
Is the white water rapids metaphor an exaggeration? Probably not! Although
you would expect this type of chaotic and dynamic environment in high
tech industries, even organization in non high tech industries are faced
with constant change. So explain the all white water rapids metaphor.
Type of change
What can a manager change? There are three types:
Changing structure includes any changes in structural variables such
as reporting relationship, coordination mechanisms, employee empowerments,
or job redesign. Changing technology encompasses modification in the
way work is performed or the methods and equipment that are used. Changing
people refers to changes in attitudes, expectation, perception, and
behavior of in attitude, expectation, perception, and behavior of individuals
Manager’s organizing responsibilities include such activities as designing
the organizational structure, allocating authority, and determining
how formalized the organization will be, once those structural decisions
have been made, however, they are not final. Changing conditions or
changing strategies bring about the need to make structural changes.
Managers can also changes the technology used to convert input into
output. Most early management studies such as the work of Taylor and
the Gilbert’s dealt with changing technology. if you recall, scientific
management sought to implement changes that would increase production
efficiency based on time and motion stuides.today, technological changes
usually involve the introduction of new equipment, tools, methods, automation
or computerization. Competitive factor or new innovations within an
industry often require managers to introduce new equipment, tools or
Coal mining company in New South Wales updated operational methods,
installed more efficient coal handling equipment and made changes in
work practices to be more productive. Even the army applied sophisticated
technology to its operations, including such advancement as three dimensional
shootout training devices and high speed data links among troops on
Changing people means, changing attitudes, expectation, perception and
behaviors’ is not easy. Yet, for almost 40 year, academic researchers
and actual managers have been interested in finding ways for individuals
and groups within organizations to work together more effectively. The
term organizational development, though occasionally referring to all
type of change, essentially focuses on techniques or programs to change
people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationship.
The common thread in these techniques is that each seeks to bring about
changes in the organization’s people.
executives at Scotia bank, Canada’s second largest bank, knew that the
success of a new customer sales and services strategy depended on changing
employee attitude and behaviour.managers used different organizational
development techniques during the strategic change include team building,
survey feedback, and intergroup development.
How can cultural change be accomplished?
If conditions are right, how do managers change culture? No single action
is likely to have the impact the necessary to change something that’s
so ingrained and highly valued. Managers need to have a strategy for
managing cultural change, as described in exhibit.
as you can see, these suggestion focus on specific action that managers
can take to change the cultural. Following these suggestions, however,
is no guarantee that a manager’s cultural change efforts will succeed.
Organizational members do not quickly let go of values that they understand
and that have worked well for them in the past managers must be patient.
Change, if it comes, will be slow. And managers must stay alert to protect
against any return to old, familiar practices and tradition.
Strategies for managing cultural change:
There are many strategies for managing cultural changes in the change
management. So they are explaining the given bellow line:
- Set the tone through management behaviour, top managers, particularly,
need to be positive role models.
- Create new stories, symbols, and rituals to replace those currently
- Select, promote, and support employee who adopt the new values.
- Redesign socialization processes to align with the new values.
- To encourage acceptance of the new value, change the reward system.
- Replace unwritten norms with clearly specified expectation.
- Shake up current subcultures through job transfer, job rotation, and
- Work to get consensus through employee participation and creating
a climate with a high level of trust.
What can change a leader?
There are many changes in the organizational so leader is taking the
some decision in the firm. So leader is giving the some suggestion:
- Create a simple, compelling statement of the need for change.
- Communicate constantly and honestly throughout the process.
- Get as much employee participation as possible.
- Respect employee’s apprehension about the change but encourage them
- Remove those who resist but only after all possible attempts have
been made to get their commitment to the change.
- Aim for short term change successes because large scale change can
be a long time coming.
- Set a positive of the change management.
How do managers manage organizational change?
managers manage the organizational change, so they are explaining the
given bellow line:
- Manager adopts the type of organizational change.
- Change in structure could be structural components or structural design.
- Change in technology could be operating methods, automation or computerization.
- Changing people, organizational development is used to change people
that are their attitudes, expectations and behavior.
- Change agent may be needed to act as a catalyst and to manage the
- Resistance to change comes from uncertainty, habit, and concern over
the personal losses, and belief that change is not in organization’s
- Managers can manage resistance by using education and communication,
participation facilitation and support, negotiation, manipulation and
cooperation, selecting people who accept change and coercion.
What current change issues are managers facing?
Managers are facing various changes in change management. So they are
explaining the given bellow line:
- Changing organizational culture is difficult, so condition has
to be favorable before managers can do it.
- Handling employee streets, which organizational change often creates?
- Stress involves excessive pressure coming from extraordinary demands,
constraints or opportunities.
- Stress is a global problem, but is not always bad.
- Potentate stress becomes actual stress when there is uncertainty over
an important outcome.
- Stress can come from job related and personal factor.
- Stress symptoms include physical, psychological, and behavioral.
- There are ways for managers to reduce job related stress and to offer
help for personal stress.
- Make change happen successfully by making the organization ready for
change, being a change leader, and increasing the role of other in change
How can managers manage the innovation?
Innovation and creativity are not the same. Creativity is combining
ideas in a unique way or making unusual associations between ideas.
Innovation is turning the outcomes of the creative process into useful
products or work methods. Input process output perspective of innovation.
Factors that affect innovation.
Organic type structure, plentiful resources, frequent internet communication,
minimal time pressures, support for creative work form work and no work
Accept ambiguity, tolerate the impractical, keep controls to a minimum,
tolerate risk and conflict, focus on goals, monitor the environment,
and provide positive feedback.
Human resources variables:
Training and development, high job security, and creative people (idea